Tareekh-e-Saltanat-e-Usmaniya (Suleyman Aalishan) is Urdu Translation of Suleyman. Ottoman emperor, Suleiman's reign as Sultan marked the apogee of penning numerous biographies and popular history books until his death in Suleiman I commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Kanunî Sultan Süleyman (Ottoman At the age of seven, Suleiman was sent to study science, history, literature, theology and military tactics in the .. Artisans in service of the court included painters, book binders, furriers, jewellers and goldsmiths. Kanunı̂ Sultan Süleyman'in su vakfiyesi by Süleyman(Book) 2 editions The story is about six friends coming back from Goa on a dark night. They are.
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Information on sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, his wife Hurrem, and daugther Mihrimah. From Anatolia to Bulgaria, the sole ruler of land and sea was Kanuni Sultan Suleiman. The story of the ruler of the seven worlds continues. Okay Tiryakioğlu. Harold Lamb'ın Muhteşem Süleyman Kanuni isimli kitabı Osmanlı'yı bir Avrupalı bakış açısından Interesting history, but the books wasn't well written at all.
It is entirely absent from sixteenth and seventeenth-century Ottoman sources, and may date from the early eighteenth century.
Upon the death of his father, Selim I r. An early description of Suleiman, a few weeks following his accession, was provided by the Venetian envoy Bartolomeo Contarini: Facial hair is evident but only barely. The sultan appears friendly and in good humor. Rumor has it that Suleiman is aptly named, enjoys reading, is knowledgeable and shows good judgment.
Upon succeeding his father, Suleiman began a series of military conquests, eventually suppressing a revolt led by the Ottoman-appointed governor of Damascus in Suleiman soon made preparations for the conquest of Belgrade from the Kingdom of Hungary —something his great-grandfather Mehmed II had failed to achieve because of John Hunyadi 's strong defense in the region. Its capture was vital in removing the Hungarians and Croats who, following the defeats of the Albanians , Bosniaks , Bulgarians , Byzantines and the Serbs , remained the only formidable force who could block further Ottoman gains in Europe.
Suleiman encircled Belgrade and began a series of heavy bombardments from an island in the Danube. Belgrade, with a garrison of only men, and receiving no aid from Hungary, fell in August The fall of Christendom's major strongholds spread fear across central Europe.
As the ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire to Constantinople was to note, "The capture of Belgrade was at the origin of the dramatic events which engulfed Hungary. It led to the death of King Louis , the capture of Buda , the occupation of Transylvania , the ruin of a flourishing kingdom and the fear of neighboring nations that they would suffer the same fate The road to Hungary and Austria lay open, but Suleiman turned his attention instead to the Eastern Mediterranean island of Rhodes , the home base of the Knights Hospitaller.
In the summer of , taking advantage of the large navy he inherited from his father, Suleiman dispatched an armada of some ships towards Rhodes, while personally leading an army of , across Asia Minor to a point opposite the island itself. Following the five-month Siege of Rhodes , Rhodes capitulated and Suleiman allowed the Knights of Rhodes to depart. In its wake, Hungarian resistance collapsed, and the Ottoman Empire became the preeminent power in Central Europe.
Some Hungarian nobles proposed that Ferdinand , who was the ruler of neighboring Austria and tied to Louis II's family by marriage, be King of Hungary, citing previous agreements that the Habsburgs would take the Hungarian throne if Louis died without heirs. Reacting in , Suleiman marched through the valley of the Danube and regained control of Buda; in the following autumn, his forces laid siege to Vienna. This was to be the Ottoman Empire's most ambitious expedition and the apogee of its drive to the West.
In both cases, the Ottoman army was plagued by bad weather, forcing them to leave behind essential siege equipment, and was hobbled by overstretched supply lines.
By the s a renewal of the conflict in Hungary presented Suleiman with the opportunity to avenge the defeat suffered at Vienna. In the Habsburgs attempted to lay siege to Buda but were repulsed, and more Habsburg fortresses were captured by the Ottomans in two consecutive campaigns in and as a result,  Ferdinand and Charles were forced to conclude a humiliating five-year treaty with Suleiman.
Ferdinand renounced his claim to the Kingdom of Hungary and was forced to pay a fixed yearly sum to the Sultan for the Hungarian lands he continued to control. Of more symbolic importance, the treaty referred to Charles V not as 'Emperor' but as the 'King of Spain', leading Suleiman to identify as the true 'Caesar'.
As Suleiman stabilized his European frontiers, he now turned his attention to the ever-present threat posed by the Shi'a Safavid dynasty of Persia. Two events in particular were to precipitate a recurrence of tensions. First, Shah Tahmasp had the Baghdad governor loyal to Suleiman killed and replaced with an adherent of the Shah, and second, the governor of Bitlis had defected and sworn allegiance to the Safavids.
Having joined Ibrahim in , Suleiman made a push towards Persia, only to find the Shah sacrificing territory instead of facing a pitched battle, resorting to harassment of the Ottoman army as it proceeded along the harsh interior.
Attempting to defeat the Shah once and for all, Suleiman embarked upon a second campaign in — As in the previous attempt, Tahmasp avoided confrontation with the Ottoman army and instead chose to retreat, using scorched earth tactics in the process and exposing the Ottoman army to the harsh winter of the Caucasus.
In Suleiman began his third and final campaign against the Shah. Having initially lost territories in Erzurum to the Shah's son, Suleiman retaliated by recapturing Erzurum, crossing the Upper Euphrates and laying waste to parts of Persia.
The Shah's army continued its strategy of avoiding the Ottomans, leading to a stalemate from which neither army made any significant gain. In , a settlement was signed which was to conclude Suleiman's Asian campaigns. Part of the treaty included and confirmed the return of Tabriz, but secured Baghdad, lower Mesopotamia , the mouths of the river Euphrates and Tigris , as well as part of the Persian Gulf.
Ottoman ships had been sailing in the Indian Ocean since the year The Mughal Emperor Akbar himself is known to have exchanged six documents with Suleiman the Magnificent.
In the Indian Ocean, Suleiman led several naval campaigns against the Portuguese in an attempt to remove them and reestablish trade with India. Aden in Yemen was captured by the Ottomans in , in order to provide an Ottoman base for raids against Portuguese possessions on the western coast of India. With its strong control of the Red Sea , Suleiman successfully managed to dispute control of the Indian trade routes to the Portuguese and maintained a significant level of trade with the Mughal Empire of South Asia throughout the 16th century.
After the first Ajuran-Portuguese war , the Ottoman Empire would in absorb the weakened Adal Sultanate into its domain. This expansion fathered Ottoman rule in Somalia and the Horn of Africa. This also increased its influence in the Indian Ocean to compete with the Portuguese Empire with its close ally the Ajuran Empire. In , Suleiman received an embassy from Aceh a sultanate on Sumatra , in modern Indonesia , requesting Ottoman support against the Portuguese.
As a result, an Ottoman expedition to Aceh was launched, which was able to provide extensive military support to the Acehnese. The discovery of new maritime trade routes by Western European states allowed them to avoid the Ottoman trade monopoly. The Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in initiated a series of Ottoman-Portuguese naval wars in the Indian Ocean throughout the 16th century.
The Ajuran Sultanate allied with the Ottomans defied the Portuguese economic monopoly in the Indian Ocean by employing a new coinage which followed the Ottoman pattern, thus proclaiming an attitude of economic independence in regard to the Portuguese.
Having consolidated his conquests on land, Suleiman was greeted with the news that the fortress of Koroni in Morea the modern Peloponnese , peninsular Greece had been lost to Charles V's admiral, Andrea Doria. The presence of the Spanish in the Eastern Mediterranean concerned Suleiman, who saw it as an early indication of Charles V's intention to rival Ottoman dominance in the region.
Recognizing the need to reassert naval preeminence in the Mediterranean , Suleiman appointed an exceptional naval commander in the form of Khair ad Din , known to Europeans as Barbarossa. Once appointed admiral-in-chief, Barbarossa was charged with rebuilding the Ottoman fleet, to such an extent that the Ottoman navy equaled in number those of all other Mediterranean countries put together. John  to victory against the Ottomans at Tunis , which together with the war against Venice the following year, led Suleiman to accept proposals from Francis I of France to form an alliance against Charles.
The Barbary States of Tripolitania , Tunisia and Algeria became autonomous provinces of the Empire, serving as the leading edge of Suleiman's conflict with Charles V, whose attempt to drive out the Turks failed in As a result, Suleiman dispatched galleys  under Barbarossa to assist the French in the western Mediterranean.
Barbarossa pillaged the coast of Naples and Sicily before reaching France, where Francis made Toulon the Ottoman admiral's naval headquarters. Barbarossa attacked and captured Nice in Elsewhere in the Mediterranean, when the Knights Hospitallers were re-established as the Knights of Malta in , their actions against Muslim navies quickly drew the ire of the Ottomans, who assembled another massive army in order to dislodge the Knights from Malta.
Michael and St. At first it seemed that this would be a repeat of the battle on Rhodes , with most of Malta's cities destroyed and half the Knights killed in battle; but a relief force from Spain entered the battle, resulting in the loss of 10, Ottoman troops and the victory of the local Maltese citizenry.
The overriding law of the empire was the Shari'ah , or Sacred Law, which as the divine law of Islam was outside of the Sultan's powers to change. After eliminating duplications and choosing between contradictory statements, he issued a single legal code, all the while being careful not to violate the basic laws of Islam.
Suleiman's legal code was to last more than three hundred years. Suleiman gave particular attention to the plight of the rayas , Christian subjects who worked the land of the Sipahis. His Kanune Raya, or "Code of the Rayas", reformed the law governing levies and taxes to be paid by the rayas, raising their status above serfdom to the extent that Christian serfs would migrate to Turkish territories to benefit from the reforms. In the area of taxation, taxes were levied on various goods and produce, including animals, mines, profits of trade, and import-export duties.
In addition to taxes, officials who had fallen into disrepute were likely to have their land and property confiscated by the Sultan. Education was another important area for the Sultan. Schools attached to mosques and funded by religious foundations provided a largely free education to Muslim boys in advance of the Christian countries of the time. Educational centers were often one of many buildings surrounding the courtyards of mosques, others included libraries, baths, soup kitchens, residences and hospitals for the benefit of the public.
Under Suleiman's patronage, the Ottoman Empire entered the golden age of its cultural development. After an apprenticeship, artists and craftsmen could advance in rank within their field and were paid commensurate wages in quarterly annual installments.
The Ehl-i Hiref attracted the empire's most talented artisans to the Sultan's court, both from the Islamic world and from the recently conquered territories in Europe, resulting in a blend of Arabic, Turkish and European cultures.
Whereas previous rulers had been influenced by Persian culture Suleiman's father, Selim I, wrote poetry in Persian , Suleiman's patronage of the arts saw the Ottoman Empire assert its own artistic legacy. Some of Suleiman's verses have become Turkish proverbs, such as the well-known Everyone aims at the same meaning, but many are the versions of the story.
When his young son Mehmed died in , he composed a moving chronogram to commemorate the year: Peerless among princes, my Sultan Mehmed. The literary historian Elias John Wilkinson Gibb observed that "at no time, even in Turkey, was greater encouragement given to poetry than during the reign of this Sultan".
The people think of wealth and power as the greatest fate, But in this world a spell of health is the best state.
What men call sovereignty is a worldly strife and constant war; Worship of God is the highest throne, the happiest of all estates. Suleiman also became renowned for sponsoring a series of monumental architectural developments within his empire.
The Sultan sought to turn Constantinople into the center of Islamic civilization by a series of projects, including bridges, mosques, palaces and various charitable and social establishments. The greatest of these were built by the Sultan's chief architect, Mimar Sinan , under whom Ottoman architecture reached its zenith. Suleiman also restored the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Walls of Jerusalem which are the current walls of the Old City of Jerusalem , renovated the Kaaba in Mecca , and constructed a complex in Damascus.
Western diplomats, taking notice of the palace gossip about her, called her "Russelazie" or "Roxelana", referring to her Ruthenian origins. Breaking with two centuries of Ottoman tradition,  a former concubine had thus become the legal wife of the Sultan, much to the astonishment of the observers in the palace and the city. Throne of my lonely niche, my wealth, my love, my moonlight.
My most sincere friend, my confidant, my very existence, my Sultan, my one and only love. The most beautiful among the beautiful My springtime, my merry faced love, my daytime, my sweetheart, laughing leaf My plants, my sweet, my rose, the one only who does not distress me in this room My Istanbul, my karaman, the earth of my Anatolia My Badakhshan, my Baghdad and Khorasan My woman of the beautiful hair, my love of the slanted brow, my love of eyes full of misery I'll sing your praises always I, lover of the tormented heart, Muhibbi of the eyes full of tears, I am happy.
Ibrahim was originally a Christian from Parga in Epirus , who was captured in a raid during the — Ottoman-Venetian War , and was given as a slave to Suleiman most likely in Suleiman also conferred upon Ibrahim Pasha the honor of beylerbey of Rumelia first-ranking military governor-general , granting Ibrahim authority over all Ottoman territories in Europe, as well as command of troops residing within them in times of war.
According to a 17th-century chronicler, Ibrahim had asked Suleiman not to promote him to such high positions, fearing for his safety; to which Suleiman replied that under his reign, no matter what the circumstance, Ibrahim would never be put to death.
Hurrem Sultan (Roxelane)
Yet Ibrahim eventually fell from grace with the Sultan. Besides Selim , she mothered three children who survived to adulthood; Bayezid son , Mihrimah daughter , and another son Cihangir who was physically handicapped, which prohibited his ascension to the throne by law. When she died in , she was buried in a large mausoleum next to her husband in the Suleymaniye Mosque complex in Istanbul.
Suleyman adored his daughter, and complained with her every wish. Mihrimah Sultan was well educated. According to the Ottoman historians, Hurrem , Mihrimah and Rustem Pasha conspired to bring about the death of Sehzade prince Mustafa, who stood in the way of Mihrimah Sultan's influence over her father.
Indeed her letters and other sources demonstrate that she took over her mother 's tomb in Suleymaniye in Istanbul.
The fact that Mihrimah encouraged her father to launch the campaign against Malta, promising to build galleys at her own expense; that like her mother she wrote letters to the King of Poland; and that on her father 's death she lent She possessed a vast fortune, and the complex which master architect Sinan built for her on the waterfront at Uskudar Scutari between is one of Istanbul 's foremost monuments and is a reflection of her charitable personality.
The complex originally consisted of a mosque , medresse theological school , primary school, mental hospital , and imaret, but the latter two buildings are not standing today. Mihrimah Sultan also had a palace built for herself near the complex in Uskudar.
Another mosque built for Mihrimah Sultan again by architect Sinan at Edirnekapi district of Istanbul represents the culmination of Ottoman single-domed mosques.
With its abundant windows and graceful decoration, this mosque is reminiscent of a palace or kiosk pavilion. A fountain, medresse and hammam Turkish Bath complete this mosque 's complex. Murad IV — Turhan Hatice. Ibrahim — Hatice Muazzez. Mehmed IV — Suleiman II — Ahmed II — Mustafa II — Mahmud I — Osman III — Ahmed III — Mustafa III — Abdul Hamid I — Selim III — Mustafa IV — Mahmud II — Abdulmejid I — Abdulaziz — Murad V Abdul Hamid II — Mehmed V — Mehmed VI — Abdulmejid II — Left and Right:Mehmed III — Reacting in , Suleiman marched through the valley of the Danube and regained control of Buda; in the following autumn, his forces laid siege to Vienna.
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The port of Golden Horn , of which the surveillance was made from Galata Tower , became one of the busiest ports. The White Slaves of Barbary. Category Commons.
He was called to the capital city to rule the empire. Once instructed, she told him she wished to become a Muslim.
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