In the present communication, antibacterial activity of Cedrus deodara Linn. and Hemidesmus indicus Linn. plants have been reported that be an alternative . PDF | Article History: Received 15 th, August, Received in revised form 21 st the antibacterial activity of Cedrus deodara oil and Ricinus communis. Original Article. Antimicrobial Activity of Cedrus deodara. Linn. and Hemidesmus indicus Linn. Plants. Against Clinically Important Micro-organism. Manoj Ku
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Original Article Antimicrobial Activity of Cedrus deodara Linn. and Hemidesmus indicus Linn. Plants Against Clinically Important Micro-organism Manoj Kumar1. The findings suggest that the Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii have antimicrobial properties and they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases. In vitro antibacterial activity of Cedrus deodara was evaluated. ▻ The extract had a remarkable antiseptic capacity in a food system.
The main sources of flavonoids in the diet are fruits and vegetables. They occur also in certain grains, seeds, and spices, as well as in wine, tea, coffee, cocoa, and herbal essences [ 71 ].
All flavonoid compounds contain phenol-groups, which in general induces an antioxidant activity [ 72 ]. Other actions are diverse-several structures reduce inflammation or carcinogenicity [ 73 ]. Non-flavonoid polyphenols Non-flavonoid metabolites also comprise several subgroups Figure 3 [ 74 ]. Many of these compounds occur mainly as complicated biopolymers.
In this, they are different from their flavonoid counterparts by lacking a defined primary carbon base, which results in unique chemical structures for respective polyphenols [ 75 ]. An important subgroup of non-flavonoid compounds from plants are phenolic acids, which can be further divided into hydroxycinnamic acids e.
Both classes often occur in plants in the glycoside form. In plant tissues, phenolic acids can be bound to various compounds, e. Another widely distributed group of phenolic compounds in plants are tannins, which may occur as hydrolysable tannins formed in the pathway of the phenolic acids with sugar polymerization and condensed tannins a combination of flavonoids [ 77 ].
Lignans are phenylpropanoid dimers, whereas the most commonly known ones include secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol and matairesinol [ 55 ]. The most known and researched stilbene is resveratrol, which is present in many edible plant species e. Resveratrol plays an important part in the plant defence against mechanical injury, pathogen infection, and UV radiation [ 78 ].
Plant-Derived Medicines with Potential Use in Wound Treatment
Essential oils By definition, essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic liquids that contain volatile aroma compounds derived from plants [ 79 ]. The term essential has not an analogous meaning as in the case of essential amino acids or essential fatty acids.
In the latter cases, essential corresponds to a lack of mechanism for their respective synthesis in a specific organism, which also means that these have to be acquired by other means e. In general, essential oils are extracted by distillation e. Other processes include expression, solvent extraction, absolute oil extraction, resin tapping and cold pressing [ 81 ]. Due to their often pleasant fragrance, they are commonly used as components in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavouring food and drink, and for other similar applications [ 80 ].
There are several essential oils derived from plants with high potential to be used in wound treatment [ 82 ]. Some of the most important essential oils with proven beneficial effect on wound healing either in traditional medicine or based on research studies , are described in more detail below. Lavender oil Lavender Lavandula oil, derived from lavender flowers, is one of the most commonly used essential oils in various therapies.
Due to its antibacterial and antifungal properties, it has been used to treat bites [ 82 ]. There are also reports describing its anti-depressant activity, as well as its effect on smooth muscles acting as a muscle relaxant [ 83 ].
Several researchers have performed many different studies in relation to the potential beneficial effect of lavender oil in various wound care applications [ 83 ].
Another study showing a potential use of lavender oil in wound care is the study by Hartman and Coetzee [ 85 ].
Antibacterial activity of oils of cedrus deodara and ricinus communis
They studied the effect of lavender and chamomile essential oils on wound healing in five patients with chronic wounds in a timespan of months. Their result was that the wounds treated with the oils healed more quickly compared to the control wounds without the additional treatment using the essential oils, which were just covered by the gauze [ 85 ].
Chamomile oil The wound healing aiding properties of chamomile Matricaria chamomilla L. This double-blind study included 14 patients in which chamomile oil, when added to standard dressings, significantly improved the weeping and drying associated with dermabrasion wounds [ 86 ]. They found a moderate antimicrobial and a significant antiplatelet activity in vitro, as well as showed antimutagenic effects in animals [ 87 ].
Tea tree oil The tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia oil is an essential oil derived from the leaves of the tea tree that are used as a complementary therapy in Australia.
The latter is mostly related to its known antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities [ 82 ]. Several studies report about its potential use in wound healing applications. Halcon and Milkus, for example, tested the tea tree oil as an antimicrobial agent in the case of Staphylococcus aureus infections [ 88 ].
Although this study was based only on a small clinical trial combined with case studies, the authors nevertheless showed the potential of the tea tree oil treatment of osteomyelitis and in chronic wound healing [ 88 ].
They compared the effectiveness of different concentrations to induce bactericidal action and found the tea tree oil to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus and most Gram-negative bacteria reduction to 0.
Two groups of researchers tested also commercially available products based on tea tree extracts including the essential oil. Thyme oil Thyme Thymus vulgaris is an aromatic plant, commonly used in preparation of several dishes, whereas its essential oil has been widely reported to contribute to the healing of burns [ 82 ]. Thyme essential oil is derived from the steam distillation of the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant. They studied the effect of thyme oil on burn wound in rats and showed that it not only decreased the amount of nitric oxide produced in response to the burn, but also facilitated wound healing [ 92 ].
Several other studies were conducted in regard of the potential antimicrobial activity of the thyme oil. Their results are in agreement with another study that was performed by Shin and Kim, who determined a significant inhibitory action of thyme oil against both antibiotic-susceptible and resistant strains of Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium [ 94 ].
Finally, Komarcevic discussed the available evidence showing that topically applied thyme oil increased collagen deposition, angiogenesis and keratinocyte migration, all together significantly contributing to the efficiency of wound healing [ 96 ].
First, they studied its potential effect on the healing of full-thickness excisional and incisional wounds in an animal model [ 97 ]. They found and improved wound healing performance in wounds treated with the essential oil in comparison with the control [ 97 ].
This group was not the only one testing the potential effect of basil extract. Another similar study was performed by Singh and Majumdar, who studied the potential anti-inflammatory action of ocimum oil. They found a significant inhibition of vascular permeability and leucocyte migration in animal studies [ 99 ].
Singh conducted another study, in which he determined that the anti-inflammatory activity of ocimum oil could be related to a blockading of the enzymes cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase in the arachidonic acid metabolism [ ].
Other oils Other less well-known essential oils with a proven beneficial effect on wound healing include the bark oil of Santiria trimera a member of the frankincense family [ ], oils from Hypericum perforatum St. An overview of the main chemical components of the above described essential oils is depicted in Figure 4.
Figure 4. An overview of chemical structures of the above mentioned essential oils. Other compounds with wound healing properties Research on plant-derived compounds with potential use in wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences.
ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL OBSERVATION OF SOME INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS
Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking towards different regions, where there is a strong evidence of plant in traditional medicine India, Africa, etc.
Most of these herbal medicines are not isolated compounds, but rather extracts composed of several constituents, which synergistically aid the wound healing process [ ]. Not many have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored [ ]. The most important groups of compounds were described above, whereas we briefly review some of the less commonly used compounds and groups.
Alkaloids Alkaloids are heterocyclic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom in at least one of the heterocycles [ ]. They usually have various potent biological activities and are of bitter taste [ ]. Some synthetic compounds of similar structure are also termed alkaloids. They are not that common in the plant kingdom, are represented by diverse chemical structures, and almost all show interesting properties for therapeutic use [ ].
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Alkaloids are produced also by other organisms including bacteria, fungi and animals [ ]. Although alkaloids are not the first choice of chemicals to be used in relation to wound treatment, there are still some interesting plants that need further analysis due to their already proven potential for this purpose.
Among the plants that produce alkaloids with potential beneficial effects on wound healing are the Papaveraceae poppy family and Berberidaceae barberry family families [ ]. Both produce isoquinoline alkaloids that possess a range of biochemical effects relevant for medical use e. Among other indirectly related beneficial properties are also the stimulation of bone marrow leucocytes, which modulate the inflammation phase of wound healing [ ].
Resins This group of plant-derived compounds presents a complex mixture of lipid-soluble chemicals [ ]. These can be both non-volatile e. Resins are most commonly found in nature as part of various wood-derived structures, although they are also present in herbaceous plants [ ]. Among their common properties are a general stickiness, whereas their fluidity depends on the contents of volatile compounds [ ]. When exposed to air they harden. Among their beneficial biological activities for wound healing are the antimicrobial activity, but their actions depend on the composition of the chemical mixture.
Resins are generally safe, but contact allergy may occur [ ]. The common structural precursor of terpenoids is the five-carbon building block isoprene [ ]. Monoterpenoids are formed of two isoprene units, whereas sesquiterpenoids consist of three units. Both mentioned groups are commonly denoted as low-molecular-weight terpenoids, which are one of the most varied groups of plant products that include more than 25, compounds [ ].
The phenylpropanoid group of terpenoids is less common and is based on a nine-carbon skeleton, whereas their synthesis pathway differs from the other terpenoids [ ].
Compounds of all three mentioned groups have often strong odours and flavours, which is related to their properties e. Since they exhibit various biological activities, they are found in several herbal remedies [ ]. Of particular importance in relation to wound healing are their antibacterial and antiviral effects, whereas they possess also other activities like the antineoplastic activity, as well as stimulation gastrointestinal tract [ ]. They are not toxic unless they are concentrated as volatile oils [ ].
The plant family best known for these compounds is Lamiaceae thyme family.
Compounds with antimicrobial activity Looking at plant extract to find novel antimicrobial compounds is interesting for clinical microbiologists for two reasons, namely, it is very likely that these phytochemicals will be sooner rather than later prescribed as antimicrobial drugs, and the public is becoming increasingly aware of problems with the over prescription and misuse of traditional antibiotics [ ].
It is reported that, on average, two or three antibiotics derived from microorganisms are launched each year [ ]. Phytochemicals with an antimicrobial activity can be divided into several categories, most of which were already described above. These include phenolics, terpenoids, essential oils and alkaloids [ ]. Among the other ones, we will briefly review also the lectins and polypeptides, as well as polyacetylenes.
First antimicrobial peptides were reported back in [ ]. Mostly, these compounds are positively charged and include disulphide bonds in their structure [ ]. One of the known possible mechanism of actions involves the formation of ion channels in the microbial membrane [ ], while the other is related to a competitive inhibition of adhesion of microbial proteins to host polysaccharide receptors [ ].
Some of the most important subgroups of antimicrobial peptides include thionins, which are toxic to yeasts and Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria [ ]. Polyacetylenes are another group of potential antimicrobial compounds with interesting properties. The compound 8S-heptadeca-2 Z ,9 Z -diene-4,6-diyne-1,8-diol was shown to be effective against S. In Brazil, acetylene compounds and flavonoids derived from single plant extracts traditionally are used for treatment of malaria fever and liver disorders [ ].
Plants with beneficial effect on wound healing, approved by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products HMPC Many plants and their extracts have great potential for the management and treatment of wounds. Natural agents induce healing and regeneration of the lost tissue by multiple mechanisms. The so-called phytomedicines are affordable and they cause minimal adverse effects.
However, there is need for scientific standardization, validation and safety evaluation of plants of traditional medicine before these can be recommended for wound healing [ 49 ]. Therefore, an extensive research has been carried out in the area of wound healing and management through medicinal plants [ 38 ]. The following paragraphs outline some medicinal plants and their properties that exhibit wound healing activity.
Achillea millefolium Family: Asteraceae. Yarrow a common name of the plant has been known and used due to its healing effects by many cultures for hundreds of years [ ]. Among its proven beneficial effects in wound healing are a good antibacterial activity against Shigella dysenteriae [ ], moderate activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Clostridium perfringens and Candida albicans, and a weak antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida krusei [ ].
Yarrow also has a proven anti-inflammatory effect [ ]. Aloe vera Family: Liliaceae. Aloe vera has been used for medicinal purposes in several cultures for millennia: Greece, Egypt, India, Mexico, Japan and China [ ]. Its gel has the ability to heal different kinds of wounds including ulcers and burns by forming a protective coating on the affected areas and speeding up the healing process.
Various constituents of Aloe vera stimulate wound healing and have anti-inflammatory activity [ 29 ]. Angelica sinensis Family: Apiaceae. Chinese angelica is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine. Its isolate has been found to stimulate wound healing and increase the strength of the healed wounds [ ]. Avena sativa Family: Poaceae. In vitro investigations are indicative of an anti-inflammatory activity of several oat fruit preparations.
Azadirachta indica Family: Meliaceae. Neem has been used in India for over two millennia for many medicinal properties, particularly for skin diseases. Products made from neem trees possess anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities. Neem oil aids the building of collagen, promotes wound healing and maintains the skin elasticity.
It also keeps the wound moist during the healing process. All mentioned mechanisms accelerate wound healing [ ]. Calendula officinalis Family: Asteraceae. In vitro pharmacological studies confirmed its anti-viral, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties [ 32 ].
Pot marigold was shown to possess also an antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans [ ], Sarcina lutea, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida monosa [ ]. Different preparations of pot marigold are known e.
It was also shown to inprove the healing of poorly healing wounds [ ]. Cedrus deodara Family: Pinaceae. Deodar possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, astringent and wound healing activities and is therefore particularly useful in treatment of infected wounds [ 33 ].
Centella asiatica Family: Mackinlayaceae. Extensive research has been conducted regarding its use in the treatment of leprosy and several other skin conditions, including the treatment of various wounds. For example, centella was used in the treatment of experimentally induced open wounds in rats. In this study, its aqueous extract increased collagen content and the overall thickness of the freshly formed epithelium [ ]. Apart from the mentioned, the topical use of its aqueous extract increased proliferation of various cells, improved collagen synthesis at the wound site all mentioned was proven by increased DNA and protein synthesis in the tested cells , through an increased collagen content in the granulation tissue, and in an improved tensile strength [ ].
All mentioned confirms the potential of Centella asiatica to promote wound healing and to facilitate repair of the connective tissues [ ]. Chamomilla recutita Family: Asteraceae. Chamomile has been used for centuries as an antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent, as a mild astringent and a healing medicine [ 34 ]. It helps in wound drying and it accelerates epithelization. Chamomile aids wound management also through increased granulation tissue weight, hydroxyproline content, rate of wound contraction and wound-breaking strength [ ].
Chromolaena odorata Family: Asteraceae. The aqueous extract and the decoction from the leaves of this plant have been used throughout Vietnam for the treatment of soft tissue and burn wounds.
It enhances haemostatic activity, inhibits wound contraction, stimulates granulation tissue and re-epithelization processes and can therefore be of much therapeutic value in the wound healing, minimizing post-burn scar contracture and deformities [ ].
Commiphora myrrha Family: Burseraceae. Myrrh is among the oldest known traditional medicines used by humans, with a documented use even in the times of ancient Rome found in texts written by Hippocrates. In addition, other cultures report its potential medical use. These include the Bible, as well as the Koran [ ]. Various pharmacological activities of myrrh are reported e. Presently, it is cutaneous used in the form of a tincture in the treatment of minor wounds, abrasions and skin inflammations [ 35 ].
Curcuma longa Family: Zingiberaceae. Turmeric possess anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities [ ]. Its anti-inflammatory properties, presence of vitamin A, as well as several proteins were shown to have a beneficial effect on the early formation of collagen fibres, which could be related to stimulation of fibroblastic activity [ 36 ].
As part of traditional medicines, fresh rhizome juice from turmeric is often used in treatment of fresh wounds, bruises and also leech bites.
Echinacea Family: Asteraceae. The most used species include E. The effective drugs for the treatment of this disease are very limited and development of resistance to the existing drugs is a common feature. The parasite developed resistance towards the first line of drug sodium antimony gluconate even after increasing the doses and drug regimen between s and s . Gradually, the drug became toxic to the patient.
The next successful drug was amphotericin B but it was highly toxic to the patient and needed to be administered under a closed monitoring of a skilled practitioner. This drug was the last choice of treatment if the patient became non-responder or relapsed or converted into PKDL.
At present, drugs such as miltefosine as an oral drug and single-dose therapy of AmBisome are in practice but sensitivity is low . Due to the drug resistance and host toxicity of existing drugs, the attention has been focused towards the herbal drugs. Several investigations on the antiprotozoal activity of plants from West and Central Africa have been conducted. The anti-leishmanial and antimicrobial activities of Nigerian medicinal plants have been evaluated  ; however, safe biologically active compounds for the treatment of protozoan disease have not been certainly identified.
The triterpenoid saponin extract from Vietnamese plant Maesa balansae was the most promising lead for fulfilment of herbal antileishmanial drug  , but it was also found highly toxic. In our previous study, we found an active antileishmanial activity of Indian Agave americana against in vitro culture of Leishmania donovani  , but it also showed toxicity against the host cells. Herbal treatment did not mean always safe . Cedrus deodara, also known as Himalayan cedar belongs to the family of Pinaceae and has been widely used in Indian system of medicine due to its nutritional and pharmaceutical effects.
Pine needle of C. It has been traditionally used for the treatment of tic, fever, cough, bronchitis, ulcer and tuberculosis. Major chemical constituents reported from the C. We report here the in vitro antileishmanial efficacy and immunomodulatory activities of Indian C. Plant material was washed under current water, then Milli-Q water and dried under room temperature. Extraction and fractionation of plant material: Dried plant leaves g were broken into small pieces and powdered.
Successive extraction of plant materials was done by Soxhlet apparatus in different solvents such as benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol . Soxhlation process was run for h for each solvent for effective and proper extraction. Solvents were removed under reduced pressure and temperature using rotary evaporator EYELA, Japan to get the concentrated extract. Further, plant extracts were lyophilized to get dried extract and obtained extracts were kept in desiccators for further use.
The maintained promastigotes were used for bioassay testing. The early stationary phase of L. Parasites 1. For each time scale, three plates were used and, on each time interval, one was observed. Activities of C. The free promastigotes were removed by three gentle washes with incomplete medium and finally suspended the macrophages with complete RPMI tissue culture medium supplemented with 10 per cent FBS. The different concentrations LabTek Chamber Slides were fixed in absolute methanol stained with Giemsa and examined the parasites load and macrophage morphology.
The cultures were examined for IC50 and IC90 for each extract concentration. Effect on mammalian mononuclear cells after extract treatment Cytotoxic effects: The mononuclear cells were collected from a healthy person after getting the informed written consent from individual and ethical clearance by the Institutional Ethical Committee.
The cells were treated with IC50 concentration of effective benzene fraction of C. The treated mammalian cells with various fractions of C.
Immunomodulatory effects: Nitric oxide NO produced by mammalian mononuclear cells was assessed using Griess reagent in the culture supernatant of macrophages after incubation with effective concentration of C.
The absorbance was measured at nm in spectrophotometer. Regarding the cytokines production, the human mononuclear cells were categorized as extract unstimulated, stimulated with LPS and extract stimulated.
The study of interleukin IL production was also done by the same process in the presence of IL monoclonal antibodies BD. Experiments were performed in triplicate .
Haemolytic effect: For assessment of haemolytic activity of C. One ml of 2 per cent blood suspension was added with the tested concentration of antileishmanial C. The per cent haemolysis noted in saline control was subtracted from all groups. The 50 per cent of the maximum haemolysis was considered as HDThe comparative molecular field analysis COMFA method reveals the trends of quantitative changes in a material to avoid wastage in manpower and financial resources.
It leakage was easy to contents find cell debris and resulting electron-dense particles around the cell Figure 4B. The scientific, English and local names, the parts of the plants extracted traditionally, their ethnomedicinal uses, route of administration and extract yields for the four plant species are described in Table 1.
Each plant extract was prepared in triplicate. The data generated from quantitative assays for phytochemicals and antifungal activity were subjected to ANOVA using Statistix version 8. Membrane Integrity 2.
In folk medicine, a single plant species is often used to treat more than one type of disease or infection [ 3 ]. Significantly, there arrow.
Halcon and Milkus, for example, tested the tea tree oil as an antimicrobial agent in the case of Staphylococcus aureus infections [ 88 ]. Neem oil aids the building of collagen, promotes wound healing and maintains the skin elasticity.
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